Gujrarat Na 5 Lakh jetla kheduto ne Pm Pension yojna no labh mlvamo Andaz


Gujrarat Na 5 Lakh jetla kheduto ne Pm Pension yojna no labh mlvamo Andaz



We are not strongly inclined to think of truth as having a history because its meaning appears to be both stable and self-evident: something is either true or it isn’t. Yet historical fluctuation in both meaning and frequency over time suggests that the term tracks several wider social constellations with which it is associated. Its popularity is linked to how a society understands the complex relations between bodily insides and outsides, and between mind and matter, as well as the degree to which humans believe they have access to these respective realms. Related to this understanding of the relative accessibility of mind as opposed to material body, an ability to discern what is “true”—objectively rather than subjectively— has played (and continues to play) a determining role in the sometimes fraught relations among religion, science, and politics. At the heart of these historical tensions lies continued debate over the degree to which inner conviction can (or should) be proven by outer demonstration.
The most significant semantic shift in truth—and a source of subsequent contestation—occurs early in its career. The medieval concept of troth, or fidelity, shifted in the late medieval period to mean “conformity to an exterior reality” or “actual existence.” Old English tríewþ denoted good faith toward another or the tangible proof of that faith. Marital and martial fidelity are the usual referents up to C14. The word was often employed to gloss or translate Latin pactum (a military covenant) or foedera (an agreement established by means of a treaty). In C12 Middle English Laȝamon’s Brut, it refers to military contracts: “Coel and Maximen cuðliche speken & freondscipe makeden, i-uastened mid treoðen” (5427), while the C13 romance King Horn uses it to refer to a marriage contract.
By lC14, the word had also come to mean “something that is true,” with trueness judged as adherence to divine or legal precepts. The reforming Wycliffite movement emphasized truth as coextensive with knowledge of Christ and the Bible. The concept of truth as fact beyond a religious context arises, according to Richard Firth Green, in legal contexts where it came to suggest an accurate description of circumstance: a 1443 trade document requires legal witnesses to swear “upon a booke to sey ϸe trouth,” and an entry in the Rolls of Parliament from 1436 asserts that jurors should endeavor to find the “naked trouth.” As increasingly literate rather than oral standards of evidence and witnessing were instituted, the measurement of truth shifted from an intrapersonal standard (what a person can know with surety concerning their own inner intentions) to an extrinsic standard (whether divine, biblical, or based on community standards). This shift suggests that truth had migrated from an interior experience of subjectivity to a more exteriorized, relational one by the end of the medieval period.
In the early modern period, the meaning “faithfulness” is largely eclipsed by that of “accuracy.” Such usage suggests a changing attitude about the knowability of inner and outer states. The earlier medieval sense of the term suggests that what can be known resides inside a person, while what remains opaque is outside. By the end of C17, the opposite was largely true: what can be definitively known is that which can be measured with a tool rather than through mere introspection, an epistemological shift exemplified by the distance between, say, Montaigne’s Essays and Descartes’ cogito. This movement is the result of the term’s increasing use in a scientific and descriptive prose that emphasized truth as something that could be verified through sensory observation. As such, it tended to describe a set of external, rather than internal, circumstances (as in the work of Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle). Occurrences of the term spiked in mC17 print, a surge that can be attributed to the pamphlet war attendant on the English Civil War, as well as the term’s centrality to the
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Gujrarat Na 5 Lakh jetla kheduto ne Pm Pension yojna no labh mlvamo Andaz Gujrarat Na 5 Lakh jetla kheduto ne Pm Pension yojna no labh mlvamo Andaz

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